Let's learn and share as many burners as we can!
A fuel burner is device for converting fuel into a combustable mixture for useful burning. A burner is often a mechanical device that combines fuel with proper amounts of air before delivering the mixture to the point of ignition in a combustion chamber. It is essential for the efficiency of the combustion process that the fuel/air mixture is well homogenized and with as few pure droplets of fuel as possible.
There is more to a burner than just blowing fire into a boiler or other heating device. Just what is a burner supposed to do?
Provide heat to a boiler, control the outlet temperature or pressure of a boiler,
Provide a high turndown, so that it does not shut off over the full heat range demands,
Burn the fuel in the most efficient way possible to keep fuel consumption low.
The following are some basics about how a burner functions. Heating oil will be used as the basic fuel, but other fuel oils follow the same rules. Before we start however, here are a few types of burner and some key terms and their meaning that you'll want to understand.
Excess Air, The extra amount of air added to the burner above that which is required to completely burn the fuel
Turndown, The ratio of the burnerí»s maximum BTUH firing capability to the burnerí»s minimum BTUH firing capability.
Let's start with fuel oil burners, this can include heavy oils like motor oil and or vegetable oils.
After all, if you dream of free energy, building a waste oil burner could come close to turning your dreams into reality. There are plans for homemade burners to suit many different applications, from simple open flame types to complex injection units.
There may be an oil shortage, but there is certainly no shortage of waste oil. Every restaurant that serves fried food produces waste vegetable oil (WVO) by the gallon. All vehicles create waste oil as well, in their crankcases, transmissions and gear boxes. Even electric cars produce some waste oils.
Waste oil burners can supply heat for all sorts of homemade projects. You could start small with plans for a backyard foundry for casting metal or perhaps a kiln. Or you can take on a more ambitious plan like heating the garage. There are even retrofit burners for firing furnaces or boilers to heat your whole house.
Look for plans that are up-to-date with current technology. Older plans might work well with biofuels or WVO, but the automotive oils of today have a host of additives that elevate their combustion temperature, making them difficult to use in old-style burners. A well-designed waste oil burner should burn clean, with little, if any, smoke or fumes.
A fuel oil burner either
Atomize the fuel
Fuel oil burners can in general categorized as
gun-type (atomizing ) burners (pressure gun)
pot-type (vaporizing) burners
rotary-type fuel oil burners
Gun-type Burners (pressure gun)
A typical gun-type burner atomizes the fuel oil by forcing the oil through a nozzle and spraying it into to a gun-like airflow head. The liquid forms microscopic particles or globules which is well mixed and partly evaporated before ignited in the combustion chamber.
A residential gun-type burner normally requires an 80 - 130 psi oil pressure. Commercial and industrial burners require 100 - 300 psi.
The gun-type is very flexible and can be used within a large range of applications, from relative small residential heaters to larger industrial heating applications. However they require a refined fuel such as heating oil to operate properly. At the very least a very clean fuel that has the proper viscosity, so the nozzle atomizes properly and does not clog. The nozzle and head are something that is difficult to build yourself, but can be modified to enhance it's capabilities.
In a pot-type fuel burner the fuel evaporates into the combustion air. There are in general
natural draft burners
forced draft burners
In atmospheric pot type heaters the gravity causes the oil to flow to the burner. The natural draft burner relies on the natural draft in the chimney for air supply. The forced draft burner relies on a mechanical fan and/or the chimney for air supply.
The perforated sleeve burner is only used in small applications.
The pot-type burner is the most inexpensive of the fuel oil burners and has the lowest operating cost. A disadvantage of the pot-type is a limited capacity. This type is in general most suited for smaller applications.
Rotary fuel burners
Rotary burners operate with low-pressure even gravity fed fuel, and the fuel is supplied to and thrown from a spinning disc or cup in a fine spray by centrifugal force.
Rotary burners can be classified as
With the rotary nozzle burner the nozzle assembly rotate at high speed and oil is supplied through the shaft. The rotary cup oil burner contains a cone shaped cup that rotates around a central tube where fuel oil is supplied.
The following types of rotary oil burners are available
vertical rotary burners
horizontal rotary burners
wall-flame rotary burners
The rotary fuel burner has in general its advantage in large applications.
The Ultimate Pipe Burner system is very simple to assemble and operate. Fuel can be burned which is unsuitable for typical comercial atomizing burners. Babington atomization can boost burner performance, our latest burner is a simple hybrid between a Babington and a Vaporizing pipe burner. Our burner designs have a good reputation for reliability and ease of maintenance, yet their efficiency rivals and often surpass some of the more complex and often temperamental options.
The new Fire-Site.Net site is a must visit: http://www.fire-site.net/
See the Ultimate Pipe Burner uses atomization and vaporization nicley!
Fuel sources: Energy content
* diesel (~140,000 BTU/gallon)
* biodiesel (~130,000 BTU/gallon)
* kerosene (~140,000 BTU/gallon)
* trans / motor oil (~150,000 BTU/gallon)
* vegetable oil (WVO) (~130,000 BTU/gallon)
*Corn at 13% moisture ~ 7,316 BTU per pound
*Wood pellets vary ~ 8,000 BTU per pound
Statistics are averages taken from various online websites